December 13, 2016 Additive Manufacturing
3D Printers (3DP) is a magical printer designed by the inventor Enrico Dini, which not only “prints” a complete building, it can even In astronautics, the astronaut prints the shape of any desired object.
Table of content
1.A brief history of development
1.1 Development chronology
3D printing thought originated in the United States in the late 19th century, and in the 20th century, 80 years to develop and promote.
The late 19th century, the United States developed a photographic sculpture and geomorphic forming technology, and then produced a printing technology, 3D printing core manufacturing ideas.
Before the 1980s, the number of three-dimensional printers, mostly concentrated in the “Frankenstein” and the hands of electronic products lovers. Mainly used to print things like jewelry, toys, tools, kitchen supplies and the like. And even car experts to print out the auto parts, and then according to the plastic model to customize the real market to buy parts and components.
In 1979, the American scientist RF Housholder received a patent on “rapid prototyping” technology, but was not commercialized.
80 years have been embryonic form of the 20th century, its scientific name “rapid prototyping.” In the mid-1980s, SLS was developed and patented by Dr. Carl Deckard of the University of Texas at Austin, sponsored by DARPA.
To the late 1980s, the US scientists invented a printable three-dimensional effect of the printer, and has its success to market, 3D printing technology is mature and widely used. Ordinary printer can print some reports and other flat paper information. And this latest invention of the printer, which not only to reduce the cost of three-dimensional objects, and stimulate people’s imagination. The future of 3D printer applications will be more extensive.
In 1995, MIT created the term “three-dimensional printing”, when graduates Jim Bredt and Tim Anderson modified the inkjet printer solution into a solution that squeezed the solvent into a powdery solution rather than squeezing the ink Press on the paper on the program.
Since 2003 sales of 3D printers gradually expanded, prices began to decline.
1.2 Develop product
Home 3D printer
Germany has released a so far the most high-speed nano-level miniature 3d printer – Photoshop Professional Professional GT. The Photonic Professional GT 3D printer produces nanoscale microstructures that print out 3D objects up to human hair diameter with the highest resolution and fast print width.
The smallest 3D printer
The world’s smallest 3D printer from the Vienna Technical University, by its chemical researchers and mechanical engineers developed. This mini-3D printer is only a large milk box size, weighing about 3.3 pounds (about 1.5 kg), cost 1,200 euros (about 11,000 yuan). Compared to other print technology, the cost of this 3D printer greatly reduced. R & D personnel are still on the printer materials and technology for further experiments, hoping to be available soon.
Color printing 3D printer
In May 2013, the new “ProJet x60” series of 3D printers of this type was introduced. ProJet brand has four main modeling methods of the device. The other three types are light-curing resins, which include a type in which the surface of the photo-curable resin is hardened with a laser, and a hardening resin is irradiated from the nozzle, and then hardened by irradiation with light. (This type of molding material may also be Using a wax), the light-curing resin on the film is irradiated with the type of light passing through the mask. High-end models ProJet 660Pro and ProJet 860Pro can use CMYK (cyan,magenta, yellow, black) four colors of adhesive, to achieve more than 6 million colors ProJet 260C and ProJet 460Plus using CMY three colors of adhesive) .
2. Technical principle
3D printer, also known as 3D printer (3DP), is a kind of cumulative manufacturing technology, that is, a rapid prototyping technology, it is a digital model file based on the use of special wax, powder metal or plastic can be bonded Material, by printing a layer of adhesive material to create three-dimensional objects. At this stage, 3D printers are used to manufacture products. Layer by layer to print the way to construct the object of technology. 3D printer is the principle of data and raw materials into the 3D printer, the machine will be in accordance with the procedures to create a layer of the product out.
The biggest difference between a 3D printer and a traditional printer is that it uses “ink” as a raw material. There are a variety of forms for stacking thin layers. The variety of media available for printing varies from plastics to metals, ceramics, and rubbers Substances. Some printers can also combine different media, so that the printed object is hard and the other end of a soft head.
(1) some 3D printers use the “inkjet” approach. That is, even if a thin layer of liquid plastic material is sprayed onto the mold tray by the printer head, the coating is then treated under ultraviolet light. After the mold tray down a very small distance for the next layer stack up.
(2) as well as the use of a technology called “melting and forming”, the whole process is melting the plastic in the nozzle, and then through the deposition of plastic fibers to form a thin layer.
(3) there are some systems using a technique called “laser sintering” technology to powder particles as the print media. Powder particles are sprayed onto the mold tray to form an extremely thin layer of powder, cast into a specified shape, and then cured by a sprayed liquid adhesive.
(4) while others use the electron flow in vacuum to melt the powder particles. When confronted with complex structures such as holes and cantilevers, gels or other substances are needed to provide support or to occupy space in the medium. This part of the powder will not be cast, and finally only with water or air flush out the support can be formed pores.
3D printing has brought a worldwide manufacturing revolution, the previous part design is entirely dependent on the production process can be achieved, and the emergence of 3D printers, will subvert the production of ideas, which makes the production of components in the production is no longer considered Process problems, any complex shape of the design can be achieved through the 3D printer.
3D printing eliminates the need for machining or molds to create objects of any shape directly from the computer graphics data, greatly reducing the production cycle and increasing productivity. Although still to be perfect, but the 3D printing technology market potential is bound to become the future of the manufacturing industry, one of the many breakthrough technologies.
3D printing makes it possible for people to buy these printers in some electronics stores, and factories are also making direct sales. Scientists said that the use of three-dimensional printer is still limited, but in the future one day people will be able to print through the 3D printer more useful items.
3D printing technology for NASA’s space exploration mission is essential, the International Space Station’s existing more than 30% of the spare parts can be manufactured by this 3D printer. This device will use polymers and other materials, the use of extrusion incremental manufacturing technology layer by layer manufacturing items. 3D printing experiments are one of NASA’s future research priorities, and 3D printing components and tools will enhance the reliability and safety of space missions, while reducing space mission costs by eliminating the need for transportation from the Earth.
Three-dimensional printing is usually a digital technology to achieve the material printer,
The process of using a 3D printer is:
(1) Tap the “Print” button on the computer screen. A digital file is transferred to an inkjet printer, which sprays a layer of ink onto the surface of the paper to form a two-dimensional image.
(2) and in 3D printing, the software accomplishes a series of digital slices by computer-aided design (CAD) and passes the information of the slices to a 3D printer, which stacks successive thin layers until a solid object forming.
5.1 Software Modeling
3D printer work steps are as follows:
First through the computer modeling software modeling, if you have ready-made models can also, such as animal models, people,
Or miniature buildings and so on.
And then through the SD card or USB flash drive to copy it to the 3D printer, the print settings, the printer can print them out, the structure of its work breakdown is as follows.
3D printer works basically the same as traditional printers, are controlled by the components, mechanical components, print head, supplies and media and other architecture, the printing principle is the same. 3D printer is mainly in the computer before printing on the design of a complete three-dimensional model, and then print the output.
3D printing and laser molding technology, using a layered processing, superposition molding to complete 3D entity printing. Each layer of the printing process is divided into two steps, first in the area needed to spray a layer of special glue spray, glue droplets themselves are small, and difficult to spread. And then spray a layer of uniform powder, the powder will quickly meet the glue curing, and no glue in the region remains loose. So that a layer of glue in a layer of alternating powder, the solid model will be “printed” molding, after printing, as long as the sweep of loose powder can be “planing” out of the model, and the remaining powder can be recycled.
3D printing design process is: first modeling through computer modeling software, and then built the three-dimensional model “partition” into a layer-by-layer cross-section, that is, to guide the printer layer-by-layer printing.
The standard file format for the collaboration between the design software and the printer is the STL file format. An STL file uses triangles to approximate the surface of an object. The smaller the triangular face is, the higher the surface resolution is. PLY is a scanner that generates a 3D file by scanning, and the resulting VRML or WRL file is often used as an input file for full-color printing.
5.3The printing process
The printer prints these cross-sections in layers of liquid, powder, or sheet material by reading the cross-section information in the document and laminating the layers in a variety of ways to create an entity. This technique is characterized in that it can produce almost any shape of the object.
The thickness of the cross section of the printer (ie, the Z direction) and the plane direction, that is, the resolution in the X-Y direction, are calculated in dpi (pixels per inch) or micrometers. General thickness of 100 microns, or 0.1 mm, there are some printers such as Objet Connex series and three-dimensional Systems’ ProJet series can print a thin layer of 16 microns. While the plane direction can print out with the laser printer similar resolution. Printed “ink droplets” typically have a diameter of 50 to 100 microns. Creating a model in a traditional way usually takes hours to days, depending on the size of the model and the complexity of the model. The use of three-dimensional printing technology can be reduced to a few hours time, of course, it is by the printer’s performance and the size and complexity of the model may be.
Traditional manufacturing techniques such as injection molding can produce polymer products at a lower cost, while 3D printing technology can produce a relatively small number of products in a faster, more flexible and less costly manner. A desktop-sized 3D printer can meet the designer or concept development team manufacturing model needs.
3D printer resolution is sufficient for most applications (the curved surface may be more rough, like the image on the same jagged), to obtain higher resolution of the items can be as follows: First with the current three-dimensional printer Hit the slightly larger objects, and then a little after the surface can be polished surface smooth “high-resolution” items.
Some technologies can print on multiple materials at the same time. Some of the techniques used in the printing process will support, for example, in the printing of some inverted objects need to use some easy to remove things (such as soluble things) as a support.
3D printing technology can be used in jewelry, footwear, industrial design, construction, engineering and construction (AEC), automotive, aerospace, dental and medical industries, education, geographic information systems, civil engineering, and many other areas. Often in the mold manufacturing, industrial design and other fields are used for manufacturing models or for some products of direct manufacturing, which means that the technology is gaining popularity. Through the 3D printer can also print out food, 3D printer is the future direction of development.
6.1Aerospace Science and Technology
Jim Smith, an engineer through 3D printing technology to create the world’s first 3D printing kayak, and the success of the water.
The “canoe” he spent 42 days, the use of a large-scale home-made 3D printer. It is 5 meters in length and is made of 28 pieces of colored ABS plastic. Each part is made of 3D printer and then bolted together.
Manufacturing process seems simple, in fact, quite a lot of effort. It took nearly six years from the start of planning to the completion of manufacturing, and the last adjustment before the launch took 40 days. The finished product is 5.08 meters long, 0.52 meters wide, with a total weight of 29.29 kg, which part of the weight of 26.48 kg of ABS, brass threaded parts weight 0.86 kg, bolt weight 2.068 kg, the total cost of only $ 500.
3D printing technology has matured, the future people use it to build a house, build cars, and even more things are not impossible.
State-owned Russian technology group company to 3D printing technology to create a prototype UAV, weighing 3.8 kg, wingspan 2.4 meters, the flight speed of up to 90 to 100 km, endurance 1 to 1.5 hour.
Company spokesman Vladimir Kuta Hoff, the company with two and a half to achieve the concept from the prototype to the leap, the actual production took only 31 hours, manufacturing costs less than 20 million rubles (about 3,700 US dollars ).
To explore more 3D printer applications, Rickard Dahlstrand uses Lulzbot 3D printers to create unique art. At the Stockholm Art Hacker Festival in 2013, the Lulzbot 3D printer not only printed art festivals for participating artists and hackers, but also played classical music as a performance project, and printed visuals accordingly. Lulzbot 3D printer prints the principle of visual music is: the movement of the stepper motor to control the speed can be run at different speeds, the sound determines the speed of tone, so music control of the printing process. Each of the three motors represents a single track, which uses a unique pattern of motion. The two motors control the Z-axis movement.
In the future, surgeons may be able to use the printing equipment in the field of surgery to print out a variety of sizes of bone for clinical use. This magical 3D printer has been manufactured, and used to replace the real human skeleton of the printed material is being tested in full swing.
In a laboratory test, this bone substitute print material has been shown to support the growth of human skeletal cells, and its effectiveness has been validated in mice and rabbits. In the coming years, better-quality bone substitutes will help surgeons repair bone damage, use them in dentists’ clinics and even help people recover from osteoporosis.
3D printing technology is rapidly emerging as a hot new industry, it can print three-dimensional product range is rapidly increasing. In order to print the skeletal material, Boss and her colleagues used a commercially available ProMetal 3D printer for testing. This 3D printer was originally designed to print metal parts. It will be sprayed layer by layer of plastic particles in a layer of powder on top of the substrate and layer forming. The thickness of each layer is only half the width of the human hair.
The main ingredient of this skeletal scaffold is calcium phosphate, which additionally contains silicon and zinc to enhance its strength. When it is implanted in the human body can temporarily play a role in supporting the bones, and in the process to help normal bone cell growth and development and thus repair the damage before the material can be dissolved in the human body.
Scientists took four years to figure out the right recipe for this material, involving many disciplines in chemistry, materials science, biology, and process science.
Researchers at the University of Drexel have made 3D models of fossils by using 3D printing technology, which not only retains all the external features of the original fossils, but also reduces the scale and is more suitable for research .
Many complex alternatives are often used in museums to protect original works from environmental or accidental events, and replicas can convey the effects of art or artifacts to more and more people. Smithsonian Museum because the original Thomas Jefferson like to be placed in the Virginia exhibition, so the museum with a huge 3D print alternatives placed in the original sculpture.
In the construction industry, engineers and designers have embraced building models printed with 3D printers, which are fast, cost-effective, environmentally friendly and beautifully crafted. Fully in line with the requirements of designers, while saving a lot of material.
Manufacturing also requires a lot of 3D printing products, because the 3D print both in cost, speed and accuracy are better than the traditional manufacturing a lot better. The 3D printing technology itself is very suitable for large-scale production, so the use of 3D manufacturing technology can bring a lot of benefits, and even quality control is no longer a problem.
For example, Microsoft’s 3D model printing workshop, after the product design out, through the 3D printer to print out the model, the design and manufacturing sector to better improve the product, to create better products. In the automotive industry, such as security testing, will be some non-key components with 3D printing products to replace, in the pursuit of efficiency while reducing costs.
October 10, 2014, the world’s first 3D print car eventually become reality, this car from the “local car” company to create 3D print car only two seats, named “Stradi”, its production cycle of 44 Hour, and the maximum speed can reach 80 km / h. “Stradi” body is carbon fiber and plastic, the use of “3D printing technology” made of. It is reported that the whole car only uses 40 parts, and rely on electric energy, charge a power to spend 3.5 hours, you can travel about 100 kilometers.
May 22, 2013, NASA has selected the Texas-based systems and materials research company, to invest 1.25 billion US dollars, research and development for astronauts to create “nutritious and delicious” food 3D printer.
3D food printer concept design, the printer’s “ink cartridges” – that is, part of the food life of up to 30 years. The experimental version of the product has been able to successfully “print” chocolate, and pizza will be its next goal in the next few weeks. First, print a layer of bread, and in the printing at the same time baked; and then the machine will use the tomatoes loaded “ink cartridges” and water, oil mixture, print out the tomato sauce. Finally, the sauce and cream are printed on the surface of the pizza.
A student named Luiza Silva designed a 3D concept printer Atomium, which can print molecular-grade materials and print almost any shape. If this concept is realized, it will change our relationship with food.
Atomium works like this: users register basic information, such as medical data (for what allergies, etc.) and food preferences. Then, the user can simply outline their favorite shape types, Atomium will analyze these instructions and create the appropriate food.
Natural Machines in Barcelona, Spain, introduced Foodini, the first 3D food printer, to produce desserts, hamburgers, breads, chocolates or pastas as if it were printed out. Natural machine company for this special “printer” sales prospects are very optimistic.
This is the most extensive of a market. In the future, whether your personality pen, or a bust of your mobile phone shell, or you and your lover has a unique ring in the world, are likely to print out through the 3D printer. Even without waiting for the future, can be achieved.
Beauty and skin care
3D printing technology in the future may also help Amy people for cosmetic surgery, perhaps the most effective treatment of acne in the future is through 3D printing technology to achieve it! Not only acne, including freckle, whitening and other fields have the hope to use 3D printing technology!
7.Development status quo
Most of the desktop-class price of 3D printers in about 20,000 yuan, a number of domestic R & D prices in the 2000-20000 yuan. However, according to 3D printer agents said, although the low price of domestic 3D printer, but the quality is difficult to protect.
For desktop-level 3D printers, the use of plastic products is limited, and the cost of using 3D printers is still high for home users. Because before printing an item, one must understand 3D modeling, convert the data to a format that can be read by the 3D printer, and then print.
3D printing is not a difficult and difficult technology. It is the difference between ordinary printing is printed material.
Israel’s Object is the company that holds the most printed material. It has been able to use 14 kinds of basic materials and on the basis of mashup out 107 kinds of materials, the use of two kinds of material mix and match, color is also a reality. However, these types of materials and people living in the wider world of materials, is still very different. Not only that, the price of these materials a few hundred dollars a kilogram cheaper, the most expensive to 40,000.
As the nuclear reaction can generate electricity, but also destroy the same. 3D printing technology in the early let people see a series of worries, and the future development will make a lot of people worry. If anything can be completely replicated, think of what will be able to create anything, sounds beautiful at the same time, it really makes people fear.
7.43D printing paradox
3d print is a layer to create items, if you want to make items more sophisticated, you need to reduce the thickness of each layer; if you want to improve the print speed, you need to increase the layer thickness, which is bound to affect the accuracy of the product quality. If the production of the same precision products, compared with the traditional large-scale industrial production, there is no cost advantage, especially taking into account the cost of time, after the cost of scale.
The 21st century 3D printer manufacturers are flourishing. 3D printers lack the standard, with a 3D model to a different printer to print, the results are very different.
In addition, the lack of standards for printing raw materials, 2012-2013 3D printer manufacturers want consumers to buy their own print materials, so that they can obtain a stable income. Although it is understandable to do so, after all, ordinary printers also take this model, but the 3d printer manufacturers of raw materials used in poor consistency, form and content vary widely, which makes it difficult for material manufacturers to enter, R & D costs and supply risks are Great, it is difficult to form the industrial chain.
Many people may think that 3D printing is the design of a model on the computer, no matter how complex the inner surface, structure, press the button, the 3D printer will be able to print a finished product. This impression is not correct. Really designing a model, especially a complex model, requires a great deal of engineering, structural knowledge, fine-grained skills, and tailored to the specific situation. With plastic melt printing, for example, if there is no reasonable support inside a complex part, the result of printing is likely to be distorted. The latter part of the process are usually avoided. The media describes 3D printing as an artifact that can be used directly after printing. In fact, after the completion of the production also need some follow-up process: or grinding, or sintering, or assembly, or cutting, these processes usually require a lot of manual work.
7.7Lack of design
Said 3D printing can give people a huge degree of freedom of production, can produce unprecedented things. Until 2012, this “killer” level of the product is still very little, almost no. Do small-scale jewelry, works of art can do reverse engineering can do, but to talk about large-scale industrial production, 3D printing can not replace the traditional mode of production. If the 3D printing can produce other products can not produce, and this product can greatly improve some performance, or can greatly improve the quality of life, this may be faster to promote the popularity of 3d printers. Can be in 2012-2013 3D printer this aspect is not satisfactory.
Used in medicine, construction and military fields, and even began to home. But the technology is gradually being widely used at the same time, the hazards are increasingly exposed.
Home 3D printer in the indoor operation, it will release a large number of toxic ultra-fine particles (UFP), harmful to the extent of smoking cigarettes, affecting human health.
3D printers on the market first plastic will be heated, and then sprayed through the nozzle, create a design model. This process is similar to industrial production, will release toxic substances, but the general household will not use protective equipment. Particles floating in the air, easy to be inhaled into the lungs and even the brain, excessive accumulation may lead to lung disease, blood and nervous system diseases, and even lead to death.
Researchers tested five commercially available 3D printers and found that they release a surprising number of ultra-fine particles. For example, the PLA polymer for low-temperature printing, the minimum release of 20 billion per minute particles; at high temperatures with other materials to print, the release of particles per minute can be as many as two hundred billion. These 3D printers release particles, such as in the open stove, burn incense candles or burn cigarettes.
First adjust the platform knob to the platform to a minimum and then select the printer settings in the platform calibration;
And then adjust the corresponding platform angle knob every time the nozzle drops to the calibration point to make the platform contact with the nozzle;
This method will be four platform angle calibration again and then a second calibration This does not need to reduce the platform only need to spray head and the distance between the platform fine-tuning to make the perfect fit (if just good do not adjust) and then confirm the machine restart You’re done;
By operating the software to close the nozzle, then remove the print head to leave the model;
The raw material from the nozzle clawed to prevent further congestion;
Remove the residual plastic from the nozzle;
Open the nozzle work, such as the nozzle inside the plastic melt will automatically spray;
New plastic materials plug in the nozzle;
When the 3D printer is on hold
(1) platform cleaning
Find a lint-free flannel, in the top with a little topical alcohol or some acetone nail polish cleaner, gently wipe, you can clean up the platform.
(2) residual material in the nozzle clean-up
Preheat the nozzle to about 220 ℃, and then use the tweezers to slowly pull out the waste silk, or remove the nozzle for a thorough clean-up.
(3) other clean-up
The 3D printer cabinet below the garbage clean up, to the lack of oil lubrication components, with a clean cloth to the motor, screw and other components above the oil wipe clean.
Do a good job cleaning up the above points, the machine can be covered after a good long-term storage. Equipment in the course of daily use, to develop good maintenance habits can extend its use of time.
The advantages of 3D printing in 2011 has been fully applied in the field of biomedicine, the use of 3D printing for biological tissue direct printing concept is increasingly respected. Typical examples include the Open3DP Innovation Group, which announced the successful use of 3D printing for the printing of skeletal tissue, and the use of 3D printing technology to produce human skeletal tissue has matured; a Harvard Medical School research team has successfully developed a biological can be achieved Cell printing equipment; In addition, 3D printing of human organs of the attempt is also being studied.
With the diversification of 3D printing materials and printing technology innovation, 3D printing not only in the traditional manufacturing industry reflects the extraordinary development potential, while its charm extends to food manufacturing, clothing luxury goods, film and television media and education, and many other And people’s lives are closely related areas.
Breakthrough in speed, in 2011, personal use of 3D printer speed has exceeded the wire speed 300mm per second limit, reaching 350mm per second. In the volume breakthrough, 3D printer size for different industries, but also presents a “light” and “large size” variety of options.
Based on the popularity of 3D printing civilian trend, 3D print design platform is from professional design software to simple design application development, which is more mature platform based on WEB 3D design platform, in addition, Microsoft, Google and other software industry giants Also have launched a variety of open platform based on the 3D printing applications, greatly reducing the threshold of 3D design, and even some applications have been able to let ordinary users through a similar way to design high-fun block 3D model.
In addition to the rich color of the creation of 3D printer is also very beautiful.
Most creations have a maximum resolution of 100 microns. But we were able to print at a resolution of 25 microns to create a very clean surface. One of the funny extensions is home use, and when you want a light bulb or anything with a plastic bracket, you can print it out. Home users can also use the printer to print toys and temporary needs of things, 25 micron resolution even allows you to use strong enough material to print dentures.
9.5Science fiction into reality
Hollywood masterpiece “Zodiac” film in the professional equipment is popular 3D printing technology, once for such technology may belong to the pilot phase of the product, the era of rapid development of technology, there have been domestic brands launched million In 3D printer products, and also in the capital of the first 3D printer experience museum for display.
In 2010, the United States, “Space Manufacturing” company, at Moffett Field, California, NASA Ames Research Center was established by the University of singularity of the alumni to create.
In the fall of 2011, the company has since launched more than 400 parabolic flight tests to validate 3D printing technology in microgravity environments.
In 2013, the United States, “Space Manufacturing” and the US Space Agency Marshall Space Center to carry out in zero gravity environment, 3D printing technology pilot study.
In 2014, plans for the International Space Station to provide a 3D printer for the astronauts on-orbit production of spare parts, no longer need to transport parts from the earth. Plans in August 2014 the use of US space exploration technology company “Dragon” spacecraft, the newly developed space 3D printer sent to the International Space Station.
In August 2014, the 3D printer will be brought into space with the SpaceX aircraft, along with space cargo, and the “Extrusion Manufacturing” technology will be used to print the polymer and other materials layer by layer to form the desired print object. 3D print design blueprint from the space station computer pre-loaded or uplink from the ground transmission, the station more than 30% of the components can be manufactured through this 3D printer.
In 2014, the International Space Station astronauts recently used 3D printing technology to create the first “space tool” – wrench. The 3D printer, designed for zero gravity, was sent to space in September and the first “space product” was printed in November – a component of its own.
In 2015, the company also plans to provide the ISS with a space printing device called “incremental production equipment” that not only “prints” items, but also repairs components and upgrades hardware.
In 2016, space manufacturing company is developing a called “incremental production equipment,” the permanent space printing device, will be delivered to the International Space Station.
The main technology
Selective laser sintering, direct metal laser sintering, fused deposition molding, stereolithography, digital light processing, fuse manufacturing, electron beam melting, selective thermal sintering, powder layer printhead 3D printing and the like.
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
Light-curing molding (Stereolithigraphy Apparatus, SLA)
Three Dimensional Printing and Gluing (3DP)
Select Laser Sintering (SLS)
13.List of 3d printer manufacturers
|Fathom||US||3D Designers, 3D Printers, 3D Printing, Custom Manufacturing & Fabricating.|
|BKJ Digital Design and Development||US||3D Designers, 3D Digitizing Services, 3D Printers, 3D Printing, 3D Scanning, Digitizing & Reverse Engineering Lasers, Rendering Services, Reverse Engineering Services.|
|MakerBot Industries, LLC||US||3D Printers, Digitizers, Filament Wire.|
|Andrews Decal Co.||US||3D Digitizing Services, Business Forms Printing Services, Commercial Printing Services, Plastic Tags.|
|NeoMetrix Technologies, Inc.||US||3D Inspection Lasers, 3D Printers, 3D Printing, 3D Scanning, Digitizing & Reverse Engineering Lasers, White Light 3D Scanners.|
|Solid Technologies, Inc.||US||3D Digitizing Services, 3D Printers, Project-Based Manufacturing Software, Rapid Manufacturing Services.|
|Printek||US||3D Printers, Dot Matrix Printers, Electronic Printers, Flexographic Printing Inks, Pad Printing Equipment, Pad Printing UV Curable Inks, Pad-Transfer Printing Equipment & Supplies, Printer Ribbons, Ultraviolet (UV) Curable Screen Printing Inks.|
|Fabrifoil, Inc.||US||3D Digitizing Services, 3Decorative Labels, 3D Printing, Decorative Labels.|
|Beacon Graphics||US||Digital Color Printers.|
|Purple Platypus||US||3D Printers, 3D Printing, 3D Relief Printing Services, CAD Drafting Services.|
|DASI Solutions||US||3D Printers, Communications Software, Design Graphics Software.|
|WB Engineering||US||3D Printing, CAD Drafting Services, Electronic Prototypes.|
|Advanced Design Concepts||US||3D Digitizing Services, 3D Printers, 3D Printing, Medical Device Prototypes.|
|Automark Marking Systems||US||Branding Equipment, Custom Manufacturing & Fabricating, Metal Embossing Machines.|
|Printek||US||3D Printers, Ceramic Rings, Dot Matrix Printers.|
|EnvisionTec||US||3D Printers, 3D Printing, Computerized Prototyping Systems.|
|Alpha Imaging Technologies||US||3D Printers, 3D Printing, Adhesives & Sealants, Bond & Ledger Paper.|
|Nicosin Extrusion||US||3D Printers, 3D Printing, Co-Extruded Film Tubing, Custom Plastic Extrusions.|
|Stratasys Corporate||US||3D printing equipment and materials.|
|ExOne||US||3D printers of sand and metal materials, short pulse laser systems utilizing a five-axis machine tool with four additional axes available on the trepanning head.|
|Industrial 3D-Printing||Switzerland||3D printing, 3D-Print additive, additive manufacturing AM MJF Selective Laser Sintering SLA SLS.|
|3D Printing Systems||New Zealand||distributor of 3D printers.|
|Toronto 3D Printing||Canada||3D Printing, 3D Scanning, Additive Manufacturing, 3D Modeling, 3D Manufacturing, 3D Prototyping.|
|Revolution 3D Printers||Canada||3D printers, 3D printing solution.|
|Proto3000 Inc.||Canada||3D Printing, Reverse Engineering.|
|Objex Unlimited Inc.||Canada||3D Printing Solutions, one-stop shop for everything 3D.|
|Tinkerine Studios Ltd.||Canada||3D printing, 3D printers.|
|Revolution 3D Printers||Canada||3D printing solution.|
|Phoenix Dynamics Inc.||Canada||3D Printers, 3D Conceptual Software, Printed Circuit Boards, Thermal Management, Electronic Packaging and Supply Chain Services.|
|Cimetrix Solutions Inc||Canada||FDM and PolyJet 3D Printers, 3D production systems.|
|Axis Prototypes||Canada||3D printing service, rapid prototyping service, SLA, SLS, FDM, DLMS prototype models, additive manufacturing.|
|Agile Manufacturing Inc||Canada||3D printers, 3D scanners.|
|3DPhacktory||Canada||full service 3D printing and design studio, multiple material 3D printing and related services to customers in a wide range of fields.|
|TechAlley||Canada||3D Printing with various machines and technologies.|
|Tasman Machinery||Australia||distributor of dimension 3D printer and fortus 3D production system.|
|ProZ 3D Solutions||Australia||distributor of 3D printers, 3D scanners from medical grade 3D print materials to industrial x-ray scanners.|